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Journal Art Science and Culture
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Journal Art Science and Culture
Art Science and Culture
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 Volume6،Number6 (/1397) ،Successive6
 
1
Investigation the Continuation of Tradition in Contemporary Mannish Circlets: Rekab
( 455 Visit ) ( 79 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 6 - Number 6 - Successive Number 6
Auhtors :
Abstract :
The loop and bezel part of ring are named Rekab. Rekab-making is a division of the art

of circlet-making. Ring making is a kind of technique got entangled with culture, society,

politics, economy and art history. However it moves on the road to disremembering arts,

while no specialized inscription about Rekab varieties or its background have been gathered.

Ornamenting is a basis for traditions principles in order to find a solution for reviving traditional

art Which patterns in designing Rekab are Principal and how do they could be advantageous

in saving tradition and pushing it toward future, are the main question of this article. In

comparison between past and today circlets, traditional decoration doesn’t have obvious

changes formally. In total, composition and the arrangement of Rekab’s surface in traditional

methods showed that these motifs are related to each other in specific orders or multiplication

aspects. Continuous dominance of symmetry in Rekab surface and its decorations, and

preservation of balance and coordination between loop and bezel is another exclusive feature

of traditional Rekab-making in mannish rings from ancient period till today. Considering the

depression of Rekab-making art, today, restoration of the Rekab craftsmanship seems to

be impossible. Although innovation and motivation is required to transform traditions into

modern patterns.
Area of Expertise : Circlet Rekab, decorating, Traditional Mottifs, Composition of decoration

2
Nationalism in clothing of the Qajar women; Case Study: Shokoofeh Magazine
( 458 Visit ) ( 55 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 6 - Number 6 - Successive Number 6
Auhtors :
Abstract :
The clothing of Iranian women in the second half of the Qajar era has undergone

fundamental changes. Extensive relations with the western world, import of European

products and the favorability of intellectual groups towards western cultural ideas were

some factors which had direct effects on the clothing style of women in the period. On the

other hand the depression in textile industries, closure of local factories and the unwritten

fashionabality of the western clothing styles between women were the causes to initiate

resistance movements in nationalists in different ways. Shokufeh journal edited by Mozayanul-

Saltaneh was the second journal for women which was published during the Constitution

Conflicts.

One of the aims of this magazine was publication of nationalist articles to encourage the

Iranian women to use national clothing styles and restrict the usage of western products.

The purpose of this study is to explain the Qajar women’s moderation and reflection of

nationalist trends in encouragement of consumption of local products, and content analysis

of the articles in Shokoofeh journal, which focus on textiles and clothing; and Encourage

women to consume local products. The method of the study is historical analysis. The study

is basically descriptive-analytical, and the data gathering was based on documents and

records. The results of the research show the influence and imitation of urban women in

European fashion, which led to the generalisation of jewelry and clothing of Western style,

followed by a constant increase in import of textiles and consumer goods, which in turn

led to important factors in the downturn of the textile industry in this regard is considered.
Area of Expertise : Clothing styles, Qajar Women community, Nationalism, Shokoofeh Magazine

3
A study of a variety of Islimi (Arabesque) patterns in design of frontispieces of illustrated books of Safavid era
( 465 Visit ) ( 28 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 6 - Number 6 - Successive Number 6
Auhtors :
Abstract :
The aim of this study is aesthetic analysis and configuration of Eslimi (arabesque) motifs

conceived in Safavid era. Illumination is one of the visual arts which is closely related to the

traditional Iranian design and consists of various forms of Eslimi and Khataee (traditional

Iranian floral motifs). These motifs are inspired by Sassanid era designs and as a result of

contextual transformation in religion, they expanded considerably, immediately after the

introduction of Islam into Iran. Experts believe that despite the past there are significant

changes in designing and coloring of these traditional motifs in Safavid era. Thus, this research

is exploring the form and color features of Eslimi patterns in images which belong to this era.

Thus a number of illuminated works of the era are studied closely in a descriptive-analytic

approach. The data gathering is based on archives and textual material. Analyzed images

involve two illuminated pages of Moraqa-e Golshan and illuminated frontispieces of Rashida’s

Shahnameh, Divan-e Amir-Shahi Sabzevari, and jami’s Selselatozahab.

The result of the research demonstrates that Eslimi motifs are the main elements of

illumination motifs in these studied works which represent the Safavid designs. They contain

Solid, Contour, and Badamakdar (decorated with tiny almond shapes) Eslimi motifs. There are

also some other Eslimi patterns such as Dahan Ajdari (similar to the dragon’s mouth), Abri

(cloud shaped) and Floral in elaborate works of this era.

On the one hand, the function of Eslimi patterns is constituting circular movements which

form small spaces to use a diverse range of colors. On the other hand, this patterns along

with Khataee spirals with a harmonious rhythms enhancing the motion and dynamics of the

image composition.

At the end, the smart management of formal structure by the artist and designing spaces

for using vaster range of colors in comparison to previous eras, are the major causes for the

evolutionary process of Eslimi patterns in safavid era.
Area of Expertise : Eslimi, Illumination, Design Models, Safavid Era, Visual Elements

4
Sirat Bridge (The Bridge to Heaven) in Text and Images from the Mural on the Tomb of Agha Sayed Mohammad Licha
( 445 Visit ) ( 25 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 6 - Number 6 - Successive Number 6
Auhtors :
Abstract :
The large numbers of holy temples, tombs of holy Shiite figures in Gilan province in northern

Iran reflects the lsrge number and the pure devotion of the Shiite Moslem population in the

region. Some of the walls of these tombs are decorated with religious murals. Many of the

themes are inspired by local legends mostly strongly supporting the Shiite tradition and

ideas. The tomb of Agha Sayed Mohammad Licha is one of such, decorated with murals of

popular religious images. “Passing over the Sirat Bridge [bridge to Heaven]” is one of the

themes in this mural. Yet similar depictions can be seen on other nearby tombs.

The present study tends to answers the following questions: “What are the background

beliefs that supported the self-learned religious painter to undertake the creation of such a

work of art?” and “What themes and religious narratives could he have used to enrich his

illustrations?”

In order to bring answers these questions, first the meaning of the bridge to Heaven in

Islam and also in Zoroastrian beliefs are studied and then the artist’s adaptations of this

theme is inquired. It is interesting that after reviewing the existing litarature we come to

the conclusion that the murals on the tombs are illustrative translations of popular religious

beliefs.
Area of Expertise : Holy tombs, popular religious paintings, murals, crossing Heaven’s bridge, Agha
Sayed Mohammad Licha

5
Siavash in Shhnameh, The Book of Kings of the Timurid Princes A comparison of the miniatures of Siavash’s death as they appear the three versions of The Book of Kings; belonging to Ebrahim Soltan, Baysonghor and Mohammad Juki.
( 482 Visit ) ( 34 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 6 - Number 6 - Successive Number 6
Auhtors :
Abstract :
Ebrahim Soltan, Baysonghor Mirza and Mohammad Juki, were sons of Sharokh. The

three Timurid princes, were patrons for the production of three illuminated Shahnameh

Books. While the three versions of the Book of Kings share an identical text content, they

considerably differ in their illustrations. Despite the similarities in the stories, their images

as the subject to this research differ greatly. An example is the scene of the decapitation of

Siavash which appears in all three volumes. How can comparing obscure points from these

three versions bring to light the politics, history and arts of that era as well as the mindset

of the patrons of the arts who commissioned these illustrations? What special reasons were

behind choosing Siavash and his death scene?

The study of the contexts of the artwork and reading in between the lines and images and

an iconographic study have been incorporated in this triple study of the three miniatures.

Firstly, the reason for choosing the story, and secondly the relationship between the text

and the illustration have been analyzed and compared regarding the number of couplets

represented in each illustration, the illustrations of the couplets themselves as well as the

storyline and the measure of the illustrator’s commitment to Ferdowsi’s original text. In the

following phase the composition of the works are examined: the proportions between the

framework of the text and the illustration, the number of bodies in each scene and their

location as well as the relationship of the background with these characters are compared.

Finally, a detailed iconographic study of the clothing and headwear, especially those worn

by Siavash, Garsivaz and Gorvi-Zereh. Their gestures and poses and the plant growing

out from Siavash’s blood shed on the ground are also studied in depth. The extent of the

independence of each work, and their intertextual relationship with the existing works

regarding the economic conditions have been touched upon in this study.
Area of Expertise : Shahnameh illustration, Ebrahim Soltan, Baysonghor Mirza, Mohammad Juki,
Siavash, Shahnameh, Book of Kings
1.Corresponding Author, A_ahmaditavana@

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